NDT Services, Training, Consulting and Calibration

Infrared Thermography
Level II

Course Description:
This course is designed to meet the industrial qualification requirements for Infrared Thermography Testing. Training covers basic theory, test principles, products, equipment operation and safety operating procedures, applicable techniques, applicable specifications, codes, and written instructions used by the employer and interpretation of indications. The course satisfies the training hours required for Level II certification. This course satisfies the training hours needed for Level II certification in accordance with SNT-TC-1A, CP-189 and NAS-410.

Duration: 36 hours

Course Outline
Intermediate Physics Course

  1. Basic Calculations in the Three Modes of Heat Transfers.
    1. Conduction – principles and elementary calculations
      1. Thermal resistance – principles and elementary calculations
      2. Heat Capacitance – Principles and elementary calculations
    2. Convection – principles and elementary calculations
    3. Radiation – principles and elementary calculations
  2. The Infrared Spectrum
    1. Planck’s law / curves
      1. Typical detected bands
      2. Spectral emissivity of real surfaces
    2. Effects due to semi-transparent windows and / or gasses
    3. Filters
  3. Radiosity Problems
    1. Blackbodies – theory and concepts
    2. Emissivity problems
      1. Blackbody emissivity
      2. The Graybody and the non-Graybody
      3. Broad-band and narrow-band emitter targets
      4. Specular and diffuse emitters
      5. Lambertian and Non-Lambertian emitters (the angular sensitivity of emissivity)
      6. Effects of emissivity errors
    3. Calculation of emissivity, reflectivity, and transmissivity (practical use of Kirchhoff’s law)
    4. Reflectivity problem
      1. Quantifying effects of unavoidable reflections
      2. Theoretical corrections
    5. Transmissivity problems
      1. Quantified effects of partial transmittance
      2. Theoretical corrections
  4. Resolution Tests and Calculations
    1. IFOV and FOV measurements and calculations
    2. MRTD measurements and calculations
    3. Slit response function – measurement, calculations, interpretations and comparisons
    4. Resolution vs. lens and distance
    5. Dynamic range
    6. Data acquisition rate / data density
    7. Frame rate and field rate
    8. Image data density
      1. Lines of resolution
      2. IFOVs / line
      3. Computer pixels / line

Operating Course

  1. Operating for Infrared Measurements (quantification)
    1. Simple infrared energy measurement
    2. Quantifying the emissivity of a target surface
    3. Quantifying temperature profiles
      1. Use of blackbody temperature references in the image
      2. Use of temperature measurement devices for reference surface temperatures
      3. Common sources of temperature measurement errors
    4. Computer processing to enhance imager data
  2. Operating for High-Speed Data Collection
    1. Producing accurate images of transient processes.
    2. Recording accurate images of transient processes
    3. Equipment selection and operation for imaging from moving vehicles
  3. Operating Special Equipment for “Active” Techniques
    1. Hot or Cold fluid energy sources
    2. Heat lamp energy sources
    3. Flash-lamp energy sources
    4. Electro-magnetic induction
    5. Laser energy sources
  4. Reports and Documentation
    1. Calibration Requirements and records
    2. Report data requirements
    3. Preparing reports

Application Course

  1. Temperature Measurement applications
    1. Isotherms / alarm levels – personnel safety audits, ets.
    2. Profiles
  2. Energy Loss Analysis Applications
    1. Conduction losses thorough envelopes
      1. Basic envelop heat-flow quantification
      2. Recognizing and dealing with wind effects
    2. Mass-transfer heat exchange: air or other flows into or out of the system.
      1. Location
      2. Quantification
  3. “Active” Applications
    1. Insulation flaws
    2. De-lamination of composites
    3. Bond quality of coatings
    4. Location of high heat-capacity components
  4. Filtered Applications
    1. Sunlight
    2. Furnace interiors
    3. Semi-transparent targets
  5. Transient Applications
    1. Imaging a rapidly moving process
    2. Imaging from a vehicle

Maldague, X.P.V., tech. ed., Patrick 0. Moore, ed. Nondestructive Testing Handbook, third edition: Volume 3,
Infrared and Thermal Testing. Columbus, OH: The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc.
Lncropera, F.P., and David P. Dewitt. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 5th Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Kaplan, H. ASNT Level III Study Guide: Infrared and Thermal Testing Method. Columbus, OH. The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc.
ASTM E 2582, “Standard Practice for Infrared Flash Thermography of Composite Panels and Repair Patches Used in Aerospace Applications