NDT Services, Training, Consulting and Calibration

Liquid Penetrant Examination Method

Level 1 and 2

Course Description

This course is designed to meet the industrial qualification requirements for Penetrant Examination.
This method is used to locate surface discontinuities in non-porous materials. This examination is used to locate discontinuities including inherent, processing, and service defects. The training covers written instructions used by the employer and interpretation of indications. The course satisfies the training hours required for both Level 1 and Level 2 certification in accordance with SNT-TC-1A , CP-189 and NAS-410.

Duration: 32 Total Hours

Course Outline


  1. Personnel Requirements
  2. Basic Theory / Fundamentals /Technical Theory / Method

    1. Definitions
    2. Penetrating Ability
    3. Contact Angle
    4. Capillary Action
    5. Process
    6. Cleaning, surfaces (pre and post cleaning)
    7. Penetrant Systems: (Types, Processing Methods, Sensitivity Levels)
    8. Application Methods
    9. Dwell Times / Factors in Dwell Time
    10. Penetrant Removal
    11. Emulsifiers: (Lipophilic, Hydrophilic)
    12. Drying
    13. Developers: (Dry, Wet Aqueous, Nonaqueous)
    14. Light Intensities
    15. Types of Indications
    16. Testing Principles, including choice of NDT methods, relevance to different materials and part and test variables
    17. Product Forms and Materials; Defect Formation and Characterization
    18. Equipment Operation and Standardization
    19. Importance of Process Controls
    20. Importance of Appropriate Processing Steps and Parameters
    21. Safety
    22. Applicable Techniques and the Advantages and Disadvantages of Each
    23. Limitations and Capabilities of Each Method and Technique
  3. Applicable Specifications / Codes / Operating Procedures and Work Instructions
  4. Hands-on Inspection of Actual Parts
  5. Sample Exams / Review
  6. Actual Exams
  7. Training References

    1. Nondestructive Testing Handbook, Vol. 2, 3rd Edition, ISBN 1-57117-028-6
    2. Liquid Penetrant Testing: Classroom Training Handbook, Duane Badger, ISBN 1-57117-121-5
    3. Metals Handbook, Nondestructive Inspection and Quality Control, Vol. 17, 9th Edition, published by ASM International
    4. Annual Book of ASTM Standards; Vol. 03.03, Nondestructive Testing, published by ASTM International


Class size is limited. This allows for maximum utilization of course time, hands on instruction, and equipment.
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High school physics and algebra helpful but not required.

We can train at your facility
Feel free to contact our Training Coordinator, Melissa Rankin, for more information at 314-770-0607 or email at .

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